Inside Out: Meet The Operators Inside The Horizon


Based on the work of Heemskerk, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (HMPS), we study the reconstruction of operators behind causal horizons in time dependent geometries obtained by acting with shockwaves on pure states or thermal states. These geometries admit a natural basis of gauge invariant operators, namely those geodesically dressed to the boundary along geodesics which emanate from the bifurcate horizon at constant Rindler time. We outline a procedure for obtaining operators behind the causal horizon but inside the entanglement wedge by exploiting the equality between bulk and boundary time evolution, as well as the freedom to consider the operators evolved by distinct Hamiltonians. This requires we carefully keep track of how the operators are gravitationally dressed and that we address issues regarding background dependence. We compare this procedure to reconstruction using modular flow, and illustrate some formal points in simple cases such as AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$.